DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES

IIT-BOMBAY

HS 699: COMMUNICATION & PRESENTATION SKILLS

 

Reading Material Autumn Semester 2007.

Reading Material July-Nov 2006.

HSS Test Result April 2008

Syllabus: HS 699

Contributions by

Prof. MILIND MALSHE : Section I

Prof. R. GHADIALLY : Section II

Prof. S. BHARGAVA : Section III

Prof. T. BHATTACHARYA: Section IV

Prof. M. GUPTA: Section IV

Prof. D. Parthasarathy 2004: Section V

Prof. D. Parthasarathy 2005

Prof. P. R. Bhat

Prof. Gurudutt R. Kamath

Prof. G.R. Kamath-2004-2005- Sem II

Prof. G.R. Kamath-2005-2006 Sem I

Prof. G.R. Kamath-2005-2006 Sem II

Prof. M. S. Malshe-2005-2006 Sem II

Prof. Pooja Purang-2005-2006 Sem II

Prof. Maghashri Dalvi

Prof. Seema Murugan:Non-Verbal Communication

Prof. Seema Murugan:Body-Sports 

Links with :

Prof. P. Vaidya (KRESIT) (contact at Intercom No. 7907) (See Section VIII:

PUNCTUATION)

Prof. G. K. SURESHKUMAR (Dept of Chemical Engg) (contact at Intercom No. 7208)

(See Section VII: COHESION)


 

SECTION I

 

NOTES PREPARED BY

 

Prof. MILIND MALSHE

Department of Humanities & Social Sciences

IIT-BOMBAY

 

OUTLINE

 

I. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?

 

II. WHAT IS TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION?

 

III. TECHNIQUES OF TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION

 

IV. VARIETIES OF TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION

 

V. ORGANIZING THE TECHNICAL REPORT

 

VI. VOCABULARY

 

VII. PRESENTATION, READABILITY AND STYLE

 

(This material is based on a Handbook of Technical Communication which is in preparation.)

 

Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay


 

 

 

I. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?

 

 

Roman Jakobson痴 model:

 

Any communication involves SIX basic elements:

 

 

CONTEXT

CODE

[ENCODING] [DECODING]

SENDER 覧覧覧覧覧覧 RECEIVER

 

CONTACT

MESSAGE

 

 

 

 

The nature of communication changes, depending upon which element we want to emphasize. Thus, we have SIX corresponding types of communication.

 

 

 

CONTEXT: REFERENTIAL / DESCRIPTIVE

 

CODE: METALINGUAL

 

SENDER: 覧覧覧覧覧覧 RECEIVER:

EXPRESSIVE / EMOTIVE CONATIVE / PERSUASIVE

 

CONTACT: PHATIC / R1TUAUSTIC

 

MESSAGE: POETIC / AESTHETIC

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay

 

 

FEEDBACK:

 

It is important to remember that this is NOT a one-way process; the RECEIVER is also the ENCODER AND SENDER of FEEDBACK (e.g. clapping, yawning, etc.) which the SENDER must RECEIVE AND DECODE.

 

 

 

NOISE:

 

This includes all those elements that interfere with or hamper the process of communication: e.g.,

 

(i) in oral communication, faulty pronunciation or a very high speed of utterance;

 

(ii) in written communication, long documents without paragraph breaks;

 

(iii) verbal overload: compare

 

1a. Students who get involved at school and college learn best.

1b. The amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educational programme is directly proportional to the quality and quantity of student involvement in that programme.

 

 

2a. Good schools and colleges try to get students involved.

2b. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of the policy or practice to improve student involvement in learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay

 

 

II. WHAT IS TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION?

 

Technical Communication (TC)

a. primarily consists of reporting specialized information;

b. it is for the practical use of readers/listeners who need that information;

c. the information is needed to perform a task, answer a question, solve a problem, or

make a decision.

The need is definite; the information is to be used.

 

If we contrast poetic communication with technical communication, certain features of TC can easily be noted. Compare the poems with the technical descriptions from an encyclopaedia:

 

Passage (a1):

Tender-handed touch a nettle,

And it stings you for your pains,

Grasp it like a man of mettle,

And it soft as silk remains.

 

So it is with human natures,

Treat them gently, they rebel,

But be as rough as nutmeg graters,

And the rogues obey you well.

 

Passage (a2):

The stinging nettle is one of the two species of the family Urticaceae that grows in temperate regions. Each plant bears both male and female flowers. There are 35 species of Urtica and all of them have bristle-like stinging hairs, which are long, hollow cells. The tips of these are toughened with silica and they are easily broken off. When the plant is touched the hairs penetrate the skin like surgical needles, the tips are lost and the poison contained in cells is released.

 

Passage (b1): The Eagle: A Fragment (by Tennyson)

He clasps the crag with crooked hands;

Close to the sun in lonely lands

Ringed with the azure world he stands.

 

The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;

He watches from his mountain walls

And like a thunderbolt he falls.

 

Passage (b2):

The eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, is named for its snow-white head. One of the sea-eagles, it nests along fresh or salt waters in polar regions of the northern hemisphere, throughout most of the United States and south into Mexico, In recent years the number of eagles has been much reduced, and they are now most numerous in Alaska. The adult is blackish brown, with a snow-white head and tail. It has unfeathered feet and toes. It is 30 to 40 inches long, and has a wingspan of 6 to 8 feet. It feeds mainly on fish; however, it catches very few itself, either pirating its food from other birds or picking up dead fish on the shore/ In 1782, Congress adopted a design displaying the bird for the Great Seal of the United States, and the eagle became the national bird.

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION: POETIC COMMUNICATION:

 

i. impersonal, objective i. personal, subjective

ii. descriptive, denotative ii. expressive, connotative

iii. conveys one meaning only; iii. "ambiguous";

allows only one interpretation allows different interpretations;

 

 

Technical communication

 

1. is the product of a writer/speaker who fully understands the subject;

 

2. focuses on the subject, not the writer/speaker

 

3. conveys one meaning only;

 

4. is tailored to the specific needs of an audience;

 

5. is at the level of technicality that will be understood by the specified audience;

 

6. is efficient and readable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay


 

III. TECHNIQUES OF TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION

 

 

a. Analyzing

 

b. Defining

 

c. Describing

 

d. Illustrating

 

e. Researching

 

f. Abstracting

 

 

These techniques are used in all the varieties of technical communication, but they are

particularly important in preparing TECHNICAL REPORTS .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay

 

 

 

IV. VARIETIES OF TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION

 

1. Technical Writing:

 

i. Technical Reports

 

ii. Proposals

 

iii. Business Letters

 

iv. Journal Articles

 

 

 

2. Oral Presentation:

 

Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds (compare with letters a-z);

(b) word-stress

 

 

Use of the phonetic script and the (Pronouncing) Dictionary [cf. English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones]

 

 

Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay

 

V. ORGANIZING THE TECHNICAL REPORT

 

Main types of organization:

 

a. Chronological

 

b. Cause-Effect

 

c. Comparison-Contrast

 

d. Listing

 

e. Deductive / general-to-particular

Inductive / particular-to-general

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay


VI. VOCABULARY

 

a. use simple words; avoid inflated diction :

(also keep in mind the formal/informal distinction)

 

multiplicity of - many

of considerable magnitude - big, large, great

on account of the fact that - because

terminate - end

to be cognizant - to know

to endeavor - to try

utilize - use

 

 

b. avoid needless jargon :

(keep in mind the audience)

 

Compare:

 

1a. Unless all parties to the contract interface within the same planning framework at an identical point in time, the project will be rendered surplus.

1b. Unless we coordinate our efforts, the project will fail.

 

 

c. avoid overused, trite expressions or cliches :

 

as a matter of fact

as you already know

first and foremost

for all intents and purposes

in my opinion

it is interesting to note that

it may be said that

last but not the least

needless to say that

the statement may be made that

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay

 

 


d. Words often confused:

 

accede, v. to agree to, to give in

exceed, v. to be greater than expected

 

accept, v. to receive

except, v. to leave out

except, prep. but

 

access, n., adj. the opportunity to approach or reach

excess, n., adj. more than needed

 

adapt, v. to change in order to make suitable

adept, adj. skillful

adopt, v. to accept without change

 

affect, v. to change or influence

effect, v. to bring something about

effect, n. a result

 

canvas, n. a heavy cloth

canvass, n. a study or a solicitation

canvass, v. to examine or solicit

 

capital, n. financial resources, the city as the seat of

government

capital, adj. outstanding, foremost

capital, n.. the building which houses a legislative body

 

cite, v. to refer to or quote from

sight, n. vision or view

site, n. a location suitable for building

 

coarse, adj. rough, unrefined

course, n. method or plan, a path moving from one point to

another

course, v. to move through quickly

 

complement, v. to complete or make whole

complement, n. that which makes something complete

compliment, n. an expression of approval

compliment, v. to express approval or congratulations

 

comprise, v (more formal; preposition used only in passive) The class comprises mainly foreign students. /The class is comprised mainly of foreign students.

consist of, v+prep The class consists mainly of foreign students.

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

conscience, n. a sense of right and wrong

conscious, adj. aware, capable

 

consul, n. an official stationed in a foreign country

council, n. a governing body

counsel, n. one who advises (such as attorney)

counsel, v. to give advice or to recommend

 

continual, adj. frequently repeated

continuous, adj. occurring without interruption

 

cue, n. a hint or a signal

queue, n. a waiting line

queue, v. to forma line

 

defer, v. to delay, to yield

differ, v. to be unlike

 

device, n. an invention, a scheme

devise, v. to think out or invent

 

die, dying, v. passing from life, to stop living

die, n. a mold for shaping or stamping

dye, n. a colouring segment

dyeing, v. colouring something another colour

 

elicit, v. to derive or draw out

illicit, adj. not lawful

 

eminent, adj. distinguished, famous

immanent, adj. inherent, indwelling

imminent, adj. impending, ready to take place

 

envelop, v. to surround with

envelope, n. a container for a letter

 

farther, adj., adv. refers to physical, measurable distance

further, adj., adv. additional, moreover

 

fewer, adj. used to modify a plural noun; fewer people

less, adj., adv. used to modify quantity or bulk; cannot be used to

modify a plural; less wealth; less flour

 

it's, pron.. & v. contraction for it is

its, pron.. to guide

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

 

later, adv after some time: I'll join you later (on).

latter, adj towards the end of something: the latter half of the century

n opposite of "former": the latter

letter, n

 

lead, n. a metal

lead, v. to separate by metal strips

led, v. past tense of the verb to lead

 

lean, adj. thin and spare

lean, v. to bend or incline

lien, n. a legal claim or property

 

 

lessen, v. to make less; to reduce

lesson, n. a division of a course of instruction

 

loose, adj. not securely fastened

loose, v. to release

lose, v. to part with, to misplace

 

moral, adj. relating to ethics

morale, n. the mental and emotional condition of a person or

group

 

personal, adj. private, not public

personnel, n. the group of people employed by an organization; staff

personnale, adj. pertaining to employees

 

precede, v. to come before

proceed, v. to move forward or to continue

 

principal, adj. the most important

principle, n. a rule, as in mathematics, or ethics

 

role, n. an assigned character, as in a play; an expected behaviour pattern

roll, n. a list of names; an official record

roll, n. a sound on a drum; or a swaying motion

roll, v., to cause to sway or revolve

 

stationary, adj. fixed, unchanging

stationery, n. writing supplies

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

 

 

 

statue, n., a sculptural figure

stature, n. height, achievement

statute, n. written law

 

their, pron. possessive personal pronoun

there, adv. in that place

they're, pron & v. contraction of they are

 

thorough, adj. finished

through, adv. from one side to another, to completion

through, prep. by means of; indicating movement into and out of

 

waive, v. to give up, to dismiss

wave, v. to signal with the hand, to flutter

 

weather, n. atmospheric conditions

whether, conj. a conjunction used to make a comparison

 

 

 

e) Technical vocabulary comes into existence by many different word-forming processes:

 

1. taking words in ordinary use and giving them specific technical meaning: e.g.

Physics: current, energy, particle, power

Chemistry: compound, element, reaction, salt, solution

Biology: cell, evolution, sponge

Computer & IT: bit, drive, monitor, mouse, programme

 

2. taking entire words from Classical languages:

Greek: larynx

Latin: focus, cortex, quantum

 

3. using affixes (i.e. prefixes and suffixes) from Classical languages to form new words:

aeronautics (Greek aer = air + Greek nautikos = sailor)

biology (Greek bios = life + Greek logos = knowledge, discourse)

photosynthesis (Greek photo = light + Greek syn = together + thesis = a placing)

pyrometer (Greek pyr = fire + Greek metron = measure)

 

 

4. deriving from names of scientists:

ampere (unit of electric current),

newton (unit of force),

ohm (unit of electrical resistence),

volt (unit of electromotive force) (named after the Italian Physicist A. Volta),

watt (unit of power)

 

5. forming acronyms (i.e. a formation from the initial letters of other words):

Aids (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation)

 

(Note the difference between an acronym and an abbreviation:

OPEC (Organization of Petrolium Producing Countries) is a new word pronounced /oupek/, and is therefore an acronym

USA (United States of Americs) is not a new word; it is NOT pronounced /usa:/, but as /ju: es ei/ as a series of letters; it is therefore an abbreviation.

 

f) Affixes commonly used in technical discourse:

 

Prefixes:

a- : (Greek not) atom, achromatic

an- : (Greek not, without) anaerobic, anaesthesia, anhydride,

anti- : (Greek opposite to, against) antibiotic, antibody, antilog/antilogarithm, antiseptic

dia- : (Greek through) diameter (dia- + metron)

epi- : (Greek upon) epicentre, epidiascope (epi + dia + skopeeon=look at)

micro- : (Greek little, (in unit) one millionth part) microgram (micro + gramma=a small weight)

poly- : (Greek many,several) polymer (poly + meros=part)

trans- : (Latin across, beyond) transmit (trans + missum=to send)

ultra- : : (Latin beyond) ultra-violet

Suffixes:

-ics (Greek -ikos=a branch of study) physics, mathematics, electronics

-meter (Greek metron = measure) spectrometer

-scope (Greek skopeeon=look at) microscope

-(o)logy (Greek logos=knowledge, discourse) biology, geology (Greek ge=earth)

-mer (Greek meros=part) isomer (Greek isos=equal), polymer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

 

 

 

 

VII. PRESENTATION, READABILITY AND STYLE OF THE TECHNICAL REPORT

 

1. PRESENTATION:

 

a. Developing the Theme Sentence

 

b. Patterns of Organizing the Data

 

c. The Outline

 

d. Formal Mechanics

 

e. Documentation

 

 

 

2. READABILITY

 

a. Efficient use of words: vocabulary

 

b. Efficient use of sentences: syntax

 

c. Making the communication accessible: COHESION

paragraph and discourse organization; information structuring

 

FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION OF COHESION

CONTACT Prof. G. K. SURESHKUMAR (Dept of Chemical Engg.) (Intercom No. 7208)

 

d. Adjusting the tone: style

 

 

3. STYLE:

 

Appropriate use of

 

a. the PASSIVE VOICE

 

b. the THIRD-PERSON CONSTRUCTION

 

c. the IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION

 

d. the TENSES

 

e. the AUXILIARY VERBS (particularly the MODALS, i.e. will-would, shall-should

can-could, may-might, have to, ought to, etc.)

 

 

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H&SS Dep, IIT-Bombay


 

 

VIII. PUNCTUATION

 

Is punctuation important?

 

Compare:

1a. A newspaper headline

Father of Boy murdered on Ship in Court

 

1b. Boy murdered on Ship; Father in Court

 

 

Spoken and Written:

 

Speech : pitch, volume, tone, speed, pauses, body movements, facial expressions

 

Writing/Printing: punctuation, capitalization, spacing, margins

 

 

Exercise: Try to read the following paragraph aloud

 

Passage 2a.

because technical communication is always tailored to a specific need it should be presented with the audiences background in mind will one person be the recipient of the information or will many will the audience have the same background as the presenter or will it be at a much different technical level will the information appear before the general public e g time newsweek or a book intended for a broad audience or before a specialized group e g journal of the american chemical society or science

 

 

Now rewrite the paragraph with appropriate corrections of capitalization and punctuation.

 

Passage 2b :The original paragraph:

 

Because technical communication is always tailored to a specific need, it should be presented with the audience's background in mind. Will one person be the recipient of the information or will many? Will the audience have the same background as the presenter or will it be at a much different technical level? Will the information appear beforre the general public (e.g., TIME, Newsweek, or a book intended for a broad audience) or before a specialized gropu (e.g., Journal of the American Chemical Society or Science)?

(From: B. Edward Cain, The Basics of Technical Communicating.Washington: American Chemical Society, 1988, pp. 5-6)

 

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Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

 

 

 

 

PUNCTUATION MARKS:

 

1. Apostrophe ('): indicates possessive, contraction, plural

2. Colon ( : ) : introduces a list or a quotation; before a clause or phrase that gives more

information about the mail clause

3. Comma (,): separates words in a list, phrases or clauses, long main clauses from the other

clauses

4. Dash (-) (Cf Hyphen)

5. Dots ()

6. Exclamation mark (!)

7. Full Stop (.) (US Period)

8. Hypen (-) (Cf Dash)

9. Parentheses ( ) (Brit also Brackets)

10. Question mark (?)

11. Quotation marks (' ' " " )

12. Semicolon (;)

13. Slash (/) (Brit also oblique) (US Virgule)

14. Square brackets [ ]

 

 

For information about the use of these punctuation marks, see:

 

Oxford Advanced Learner痴 Dictionary of Current English (4th edition: 1989) Appendix 3.

 

 

 

FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION

CONTACT Prof. >

  • Vaidya (KRESIT) (contact at Intercom No. 7907)
  •  

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    15

    Prof. M.S.MALSHE: H & SS DEPT, IIT-BOMBAY

     


    SECTION II

    Outline of a two-hour lecture delivered by
    Prof. R. GHADIALLY

    Department of Humanities & Social Sciences

    IIT-BOMBAY

     

    The lecture essentially followed Satir痴 model (1976) of communication. The following ideas were covered.

    1. The meaning and goal of communication

     

    2. How true communication can be attained. This can be attained by inviting to make contact, arranging yourself physically for contact, being prepared to take risks to express your authentic thoughts, making your statement beginning with an 的, asking questions for clarification and finally thinking of interpersonal difficulties as opportunities rather than threats.

     

    3.      How effective communication promotes freedom to speak, to see, to feel, to say and to take risks instead of opting for being secure.

    1. Communication style of people with low self-esteem. This style is characterized by the following: placating, blaming, computing, distracting.

    1. Guidelines for direct, honest communication included the following: a) own your feeling and thoughts,

    b) address the other person directly,

    c) make statements rather than ask questions,

    d) don稚 suppress your negative feelings,

    e) do not be accusatory,

    f) be generous in giving positive feedback to others,

    g) practice active listening, speak only for yourself and not for others

    6.      This was followed by an exercise in which each student was asked to rate how often he/she currently practices each of the eight effective communication guidelines that were discussed in class.

     

    7. Finally the class was provided with a short introduction on one element of communication namely listening. Listening tips included the following:

    a)Showing Attentiveness

    b)     Clarifying Content of Sender痴 Message

    c)      Verifying Non-Verbal Messages

    d)     Inviting More Information and Expression of Feeling

     

    Reference: Satir, V. (1976) Making Contact. Berkeley: Celestial Arts.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION III

     

    OUTLINE OF LECTURES DELIVERD BY

    Prof. S. BHARGAVA

     

    Department of Humanities & Social Sciences

    IIT-BOMBAY

     

     

     

    1.Communication at Work

     

    Transference of meaning from one (SENDER), to be understood, to the other (RECEIVER). This means the following for you

    匹ommunication, a process that involves other

    筆eaning is in the mind of each communicator

    匹ommunication stimuli can consist of almost everything within our environment.

     

     

     

     

     

    2. Miscommunication: Dangerous Consequences

     

    畢ack of meaningful information

    姫roblem of control (managing people)

    畢ack of motivation

    畢ack of attachment towards organization

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    3. An example:

     

    I have yet not seen your seminar paper Ms. Ruby Chhabda, asked Dr. Subrato Chattopadhya, her M. Tech guide.

     I will submit it tomorrow evening. That痴 very good.

     Ruby, the Director of the institute has expressed concern over the deteriorating involvement of the PG students on the departmental academic affairs through the Heads. I hope you will put your best efforts on the academic activities of the department as well.

     Does department need our involvement, Ruby asked?

     Why do you think so and how did you develop doubt on it?

     It is reality. Head always imposes the orders, without listening students, and expects implementation, which is practically impossible, said Ruby. He also protects weak faculty and gives importance to undeserving students.

     How do you know? This is what I have been told, said Ruby.

    Who told you? Everybody knows about it and you may also be knowing, Sir.

    He is known Professor, told the guide. Did I challenge? But why should students come to the lab/department if they are able to do their work at the room, asked Ruby?

     What will happen to the department if all students will think and do in this way, Ruby?

     It is up to the department to think.

     You are also a part of the department. Ruby, you are young and it is expected from you to be critical but it is equally important to see the problem from Head痴 perspective also.

    Then Head should also be objective, impartial, and concerned for the students, which he is not. Oh Ruby! You are not right.

     What happened Ruby, asked Mr. Rameshan, her classmate? Nothing. OK.

     What happened Ruby, asked Ms. Savita, her classmate; did you not meet your guide today? You see Savita, he is also taking the side of Head. All are like that only, I told you long back, when you were highly appreciating your guide. Yahhh!

     Good morning, Sir. Morning Ruby. I have gone through your paper. You have done lots of work. However, paper lacks direction and requires careful analysis. Ruby, in comparison to your previous paper, I did not find rigorousness in this paper. Take care!

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    4. Communication Process

    Source (sender)

    Message (what is to be communicated)

    Encoding (converting message to be understandable: Your skills, attitudes, awareness or knowledge, and socio-cultural system or beliefs and values affect encoding process)

    The channel (The medium through which message travels)

    Decoding (re-translating senders message)

    Feedback

     

     

    5. Communication

    Intrapersonal Communication

    with in one person

    Interpersonal Communication

    between two people

    Small Group

    groups up to 25 people

    Large Group

    groups of 25 or more

    Organizational Communication

    within business, administration

    Public or Mass

    special media directed to a large audience

    International

    involving cross cultures

    6. Communication Skills

    Writing

    Reading

    Speaking

    Listening

    7. Sender (Guide)

    Message

    Words

    Vocabulary

    Language

    Phrases

    Sentence structure

    Sentence clarity

    Paralanguage

    Rate of speech

    Tone

    Rhythm

    Volume

    Nonverbal behavior

    Gesture

    Facial expression

    Eye contact

    Body language

    Positioning

    8. Receiver (student)

    Interpretation

    Perception

    Mental set

     

     

     

    9. Communication Effectiveness: How Does it Help You

    Information

    Relationships

    Persuasion

    Power

    Decision making

    Self expression

    Making sense of world

    Enhances productivity

     

    10. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS (of sender/receiver) OF COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS

    Personal

    Personality

    Innate characteristics

    Social/learned characteristics

    Role characteristics

    Situational Characteristics

    Personal Philosophy

    Personal style

    Energy and skill level

     

    11. Group and Organizational Factors

    Structure

    Your department

    Interpersonal relationship

    Organizational culture

     

    12. Ten variables in a communication content

    Formality

    Interaction level

    Purposiveness

    Proximity

    General atmosphere

    Duration of interaction

    Potential effect

    Feedback possible

    Flexibility

    Personal involvement


    SECTION IV

     

    OUTLINE OF LECTURES DELIVERD BY

    Prof. T. BHATTCHARYA

     

    Department of Humanities & Social Sciences

    IIT-BOMBAY

     

     
     
    NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

     

    Bodily communication is communication without words

     

    Non-Verbal Communication

     

    Face --------------------- Organ of Emotion

     

    Oculeics----------------- Use of eyes in communication

     

    Haptics ----------------- Touching behaviour in different societies

     

     

    Emotionality and Non-verbal communications