HS 419: Methodological Foundations of Indian Scientific Tradition

Vyakarana: Structure of Sanskrit language ` Formation of words (sabdanis.patti) - Phonology (sabdotpatti) ` Primary aphorisms (sutras) ` Secondary rules/Notes on aphorisms (vartika) ` Paribhas.a and domain of application of rules.

Nyaya - Vaisesika: Classification of substances ` Characteristics of definition (Laksanalaksanam) ` The notion of absence (abhava) ` J`nana or cognition, Anumana of inference. The concept of (Vyapti) or invariable concommittance ` the combination of deductive and inductive reasoning ` Hetvabhasa or vitiated inference.

Epistemology: Pramana of means of valid knowledge ` issues related to redundancies ` Validity of knowledge ` its nature with reference to the origin (utpatti) and with reference to its cognition (j`napti) ` Theories explaining the concept of illusory cognition (khyativada) ` Use of avacchedaka, vi`sesyata, prakarata and so on to achieve precision in definition.


Rama Nath Sharma, The Astadhyay` of Panini, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1987.

G. Cardona, Panini - A Survey of Research, The Hauge, Mouton.

Mahamahopadhyaya Kuppuswami Sastri, A Primer of Indian Logic, KSRI, Chennai, 1998.

Matilal B.K., The Navya-Nyaya Doctrine of Negation, Cambridge, Massachusetts,  Harvard University Press, 1968.

Matilal B.K., Logic, Language and Reality, Motilal Banarsidass, 1985.

T.R.N. Rao and Subhash Kak, Computing Science in Ancient India, Centre  for Advanced Computer Studies, Lafayette, Louisiana, 1998.