The Writing Process

The writing process

(a) Argument Construction

(b) Reasoning

(c) Logic

(d) Grammar

i. Sentences

"A sentence is a written expression of a complete thought. A sentence contains:
a capital letter at the beginning and a full stop at the end, a subject (person/people or thing[s] that is/are doing something) and a verb (action or doing word)."

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ii. Paragraphs  

"Many students define paragraphs in terms of length: a paragraph is a group of at least five sentences, a paragraph is half a page long, etc. In reality, though, the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph. A paragraph is a sentence or group of sentences that support one main idea."
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iii. Nouns

"Nouns are words such as “Smith”, “Oxford”, “letter”, “laughter” & “beauty”. They are defined partly by their form and partly by their position or function.There are several word endings that indicate that a word is a noun. Typical examples are “-ity”, “-ment”, “-ness”, “-tion”, & “-hood”. They usually change their form (inflect) for plural:- “-s”, “-es”. With regard to their position, nouns frequently follow determiners “a”, “the”, “this”, “that” and their main function is Head of a nominal group. Nouns are often classified into common nouns, proper nouns and pronouns."
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iv. Pronouns

"A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun. Some pronouns have nouns or pronouns to which they refer, called antecedents. Pronouns must agree with antecedents for person, number, or gender." (Source: )

v. Verb

"Verbs are words such as "eat", "singing" &"listened". They are defined partly by their form and partly by their position or function. Verbs usually change their form - that is they inflect. A typical verb such as "eat" has five main forms: "eat", "eats", "eating", "ate" & "eaten". These forms are often referred to as "base", "-s", "-ing", "-ed", "-en". Irregular verbs may have fewer forms. For example "walk" has only four forms: "walk", "walks", "walked", "walking". With regard to their position, they often fit in the following patterns: "The boy ... the fish", "He ... carefully". "She ... intelligent". Their main function is Head of a verbal group. There are two main types of verb: lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs." (Source:

vi. Tenses

"In simple terms, verb tenses refer to the past, present or future. Verb tenses tell the reader when something happened, and are used to convey what is or is not known at the time of writing.Use the present tense if you are making general statements that draw on previous research, and usually indicate what is known at the time of writing. If you are reporting on your own or others’ specific research activities (such as methods that were used, or results that were found) then you would generally use the past tense." (Source: )

vii. Adjectives

"Adjectives are words such as “beautiful”, “ugly”, “new” or “old”. They usually denote qualities or have a descriptive meaning. The most typical position for an adjective is between a determiner and a noun. Typical forms of adjective endings are: “-able/-ible”, “-ish/-like”, “-ful/-less”, “-ous” or “-y”. Adjectives may display inflection for degree: “-er” & “-est”. They have two main functions: as modifiers of nouns in nominal groups, and as head of an adjectival group." (Source: )

viii. Adverbs

"Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. (You can recognize adverbs easily because many of them are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, though that is not always the case.) The most common question that adverbs answer is how."  (Source: )

ix. Active and Passive Voice

“The active voice places the subject of the sentence in charge of the action. For example: “The research assistant designed the survey.” Here the research assistant (the subject) designed (the verb) the survey (the object). The passive voice places the subject at the end, or may leave it out completely. For example: “The survey was designed by the research assistant.” Here the survey (the object) was designed (the verb) by the research assistant (the subject). The passive voice is more formal than the active voice. It is often used in academic writing as it is seen as more impersonal and therefore more objective.”(Source: Adapted from Writing with Style by Stott and Avery, 2001, p.54 and sourced from

x. Prepositions

"Prepositions are keywords that indicate the start of a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase begins with the first preposition in the sentence and ends with the object or noun of the phrase. For example, “She sat on the red carpet while reading.” The italicized portion is a prepositional phrase. Generally, prepositional phrases act as adverbs or adjectives in that they modify either verbs, adverbs, or adjectives." (Source:

xi. Conjunctions, Linking words, Transitional words and phrases

"Conjunctions are parts of speech that connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. There are three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, paired, and subordinating." (Source:
"Linking words are used to connect ideas when writing. They enable the writing to flow from one idea to the next in a logical and cohesive way." (Source: )

xii. Articles

"What is an article? Basically, an article is an adjective. Like adjectives, articles modify nouns. English has two articles: the and a/an. The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call 'the' the definite article and a/an the indefinite article." (Source:

xiii. Clauses

"The clause is a central unit of any language. A simple way of thinking about clauses is to regard them as units of language which convey a single message about some event or state, including information about what kind of event or state it is; who is taking part; where, when, why, or how it happened, etc." (Source: )

(e) Punctuation

i. Commas

"The comma is a much misused and often over used piece of punctuation. The complexity of its usage stems primarily from the fact that there are several different situations in which the comma is the correct piece of punctuation to use. The trick is to identify those situations so as not to use the comma in places where it really should not be." (Source: )

ii. Semicolon

"Think of the semicolon as a flashing red light.In a sentence, a semi-colon can join two complete sentences that are related and make them into one sentence. Semicolons are used to help emphasize the division between items that themselves include commas." (Source: )

iii. Colon

"The colon provides a formal introduction, especially to a series or to a quotation. Use it to bring your readers to a complete stop and focus their attention on what follows." (Source:

iv. Dashes

"Dashes -- are primarily used to indicate a pause in thought which offers more detail or emphasizes a point of information.Or they can be used to separate an appositive phrase, usually a list, from the rest of the sentence." (Source:

v. Hyphen

"Hyphens are used to join two words together to make a compound word.Note that not all compound words need hyphens (e.g. flowerpot, lipstick).Hyphens are also used to join two words together to create a single adjective.However, do not hyphenate these words if they follow the nouns they modify." (Source:

vi. Brackets

"Brackets [ ] have very specific uses in formal writing; they are used either to insert commentary, missing words, or ellipses within direct quotes." (Source:

vii. Parentheses

"Use parentheses to enclose interruptions that are awkward to work into a sentence's normal punctuation. Parentheses de-emphasize the words they enclose (in contrast with the dash, which emphasizes), and they allow you to make supplementary comments about your main ideas. As with the dash, use them sparingly. Too many parentheses or unusually long parenthetical statements distract readers by setting up a whispering undercurrent to your main line of thought." (Source:

viii. Ellipses

"An ellipsis--three spaced periods--is like a pothole in the road; something is left out, but that something doesn't really change the nature of the road. Ellipses show that words have been omitted from a quotation, words whose omission does not change the meaning of the quotation. Use an ellipsis when you don't need to use the whole quotation." (Source:

ix. Apostrophe

"Apostrophes have two main uses: to indicate possession and to indicate contractions. Most difficulties occur with the first use or with using the apostrophe to form regular plurals." (Source:

(f) Academic Language and Vocabulary

(g) Writing an abstract (Linguistics)

(h) Paraphrasing, Quoting, Summarizing

(i) Citation and References